Learning Linux - Part Three

Linux Basic Fundamentals Guide and Tutorial

Welcome to the Land of Linux's tutorials and guides. In part 3 of our free tutorial we will look at some of the most popular commands for working with files.

We will look at the many ways of searching for a file on a Linux system, howto compare files for differences using the "diff" and "sdiff commands.

We will look at how to sort the contents of files into numerical and alphabetical order. Howto remove duplicate entries from files. Howto join files together, howto split files into smaller files. An introduction to working with "Hard" and "Soft" links (symbolic links). Howto edit files using "awk", "gawk" and "SED".

One of the many great features of Linux is its built in documentation facility called the "Man Pages". This allows you to lookup help information on commands and files. We will cover the "Man Pages", which should be your first place to look for help. We take a look at various "help" commands and "Information" commands that are at your disposal.

Howto compress files and directory structures using popular compression utilities.

One of the most important subjects to understand about Linux is the way file and directory permissions are assigned. We will look at ways to assign the permissions "read", "write" and "execute" to files and directories using "umask" and "chmod". An explanation of SUID, SGID and "sticky bits".




Part 3 - Linux Tutorial


  • Finding Files - find command - locate command - regular expressions
  • find command, locate command, find files by date, size, user, permission, find and grep, find command examples, grep, egrep, grep command examples.
  • xargs Command
  • Use the output from one command and then execute another command against that output usinf xargs.
  • diff Command
  • Compare the contents of files using "diff" and "sdiff" commands. Basic diff command examples.
  • Sorting Files
  • Sort command, sorting numerically, sorting alphabetically, sort on fields, remove duplicates.
  • Uniq Command
  • Remove or display adjacent duplicate entries within a file.
  • Word Count
  • WC command - count words and bytes within a specified file.
  • Cut and Paste
  • Cut command, Paste command.
  • Joining two files with matching fields
  • Using the join command to join two files with a matching field together.
  • Splitting larger files
  • Use the split command to split larger files into smaller files.
  • Formatting Text
  • Use the fmt command to carry out simple text formatting.
  • Expand & Unexpand
  • Convert spaces to Tabs and and Tabs to spaces with the expand and unexpand command.
  • Hard and Soft File Links
  • Working with Soft links and Hard Links. Symbolic links explained.
  • File Permissions
  • Listing file permissions, Permissions types, Setting Permissions, chmod, Umasks, SUID, SGID, Sticky Bits
  • Awk and Gawk
  • Process files with awk and gawk. Use awk to manipulate files and text fields with ease. Create simple awk scripts.
  • SED - Stream Editor
  • Modify text from input streams and commands. Extract information from files with SED.
  • tr - Translate
  • Howto use the "tr" translate command. Translate characters from lower to upper case. Make global changes on files.
  • Archiving and Compression
  • Howto use tar, cpio, gzip, gunzip, bzip2 and compress commands. Copying directory structures.
  • Z Commands
  • Learn about Linux Z Commands. Working with compressed files using, zcat, zgrep, zdiff, zmore and znew commands.
  • stat Command
  • Display file and file system information.
  • debugfs Commands
  • Display Linux file creation date (crtime) using debugfs.