Installing Ubuntu Server 12.04 LTS
Installing Ubuntu Server 12.04 LTS
Ubuntu Server is similar to the Ubuntu Desktop edition, however, it does not by default install the X Window environment. The installation method is also very different as it uses a text based installation interface as opposed to the traditional Graphical User Interface. Graphical Desktops can be installed at a later date if desired. The Ubuntu Server edition is mainly aimed at the Enterprise/Data Centre market. During installation you can choose from various server roles and packages to install. To download the Ubuntu Server 12.04 LTS simply click on the link below.
Download Ubuntu Server 12.04 LTS
Once you have your downloaded "iso" image that matches your system (32 bit or 64 bit), you will need to burn this to a DVD. For software that can achieve this, simply search for "dvd iso burning software" in the search box above. Your system may already have CD/DVD burning software such as "Brasero, K3B, Nero, CDBurnerXP or Roxio". Once you have burned your chosen "iso" image of Ubuntu Server to your DVD, you will need to leave the DVD in the DVD drive and reboot your system. As your computer reboots, you will need to press the appropriate key to access your system's BIOS settings. On many systems this key will be "F8", "F11" or "F12". Most systems will display the a message indicating which key needs to be pressed. Once you have access to your BIOS settings, you will need to modify the boot order of your system to boot from CD/DVD first. Once you have made this change, you can reboot your system and follow the Instructions below.
Use the arrow keys and Tab key to highlight selections and the "enter" key to confirm
Select Initial Language for Installation
Highlight your chosen language for this installation of Ubuntu Server 12.04 LTS. In this example, "English" has been chosen.
At this screen you must select the option "Install Ubuntu Server".
Optional Installation Modes - F4 key
By pressing the "F4" function key at this screen you can choose from some alternative installation options. For this installation, I have chosen to go with the default option of "Normal".
Choose Language for Installation Process
Select the Language you wish to use for this installation of Ubuntu Server. In the example I have chosen "English"
Select your Location
Select your current location. This will be used for setting your system time zone and your system locale settings. In the example "United Kingdom" has been selected.
Configure the Keyboard
Select your Keyboard settings from this screen. The system can try and automatically detect your settings, however, it is often easier to select "No" and choose your settings from the menu. In this example, I chose to manually select my keyboard settings.
Configuring the Keyboard Manually
From this screen, select the country of origin for your computer. In this example I have chosen "English (UK).
Please select the layout that matches your keyboard.
Loading and Configuring the Network
The next phase automatically loads additional components and will try to configure your network if you have an available DHCP server. (For information regarding manually configuring your network see the official Ubuntu Server Guide Server Guide)
Configuring the Hostname for your server
At this screen you must supply a unique host name for your server. In the example I have used the name "ubuntu01-srv". You may use any name that matches your naming conventions.
Enter Users Name for system
At this screen, simply enter the name of the user that you would like to create an account for. This is the name that will be associated with the account you create in the next step.
Select a Username for the account (userid)
At this screen simply give the name of the userid you wish to create. In the example I have used my name "john".
Create a Password for your account
Next you will need to supply a password that is to be used with the account you created in the previous step. Where possible use a mixture of upper and lowercase letters, numbers and punctuation marks. You will be asked to confirm the password you entered.
Encrypt your home directory
At this screen you have the option of encrypting your home area. In the example, I have chosen not to go with this option.
Confirm your Time Zone
At this screen you can change your Time Zone if it is not correct, otherwise choose the option "Yes" to continue with the installation.
At this screen you can choose which options to use for "Disk Partitioning". In the example I have gone with the option "Guided - Use entire disk and setup LVM. (The LVM option is chosen as it allows additional disks to be added easily at a later date. For an overview of "LVM" Logical Volume Management, see the LVM Guide
Select Disk to Partition
Highlight the disk you would like to partition for this installation. In this example, there is only one disk available. Press "Enter" to continue if you are happy with your selection.
Confirm - Write Changes to Disk
At this screen you must confirm that you are happy to go ahead and write your changes to disk. Highlight the "Yes" option to continue with the installation.
Select Volume Group Size to be used
From this screen you must choose how much space you would like to allocate to your new Volume Group. You can specify a percentage of the available space or use all. In the example I have used all space available.
Confirm LVM Setup
If you are happy with the displayed configuration, select the option "Yes" to write these changes to disk. Otherwise select the option "No".
Installation Continues - Installing the Base System
A progress box should now appear displaying the current progress for the installation of the base system. No action is required here.
HTTP Proxy Configuration
If you require access to a Proxy server to connect to the outside world, simply enter your credentials as per the screen shot below. In this example, I am not using a Proxy server so I have left this entry blank and highlighted the "Continue" option.
Applying Updates to your System
From this screen you must choose one of the options for updates/patching of your server. You can select to have "No automatic updates", "Install Security Updates Automatically" or "Manage system with Landscape". The latter option uses special software to deploy updates to your servers. In this example I have gone with "No automatic updates".
At this next screen you can choose any additional software that you require to be installed. This will mainly be dependant on what role(s) this server is to be used for. I have chosen only to install the "ssh" OpenSSH Server component. This is desirable for remote administration. To select any of the components, simply highlight the option and press the "Space" key to select. If you decide to install any additional components at a point after the initial installation, this can be done easily with the "tasksel" command. A brief overview of this process will be given at the end of the installation guide.
Installing the GRUB bootloader
At this screen you must confirm that you are happy to install the GRUB bootloader to the Master Boot Record (MBR). If you are happy for this action to take place, choose the "Yes" option to continue.
Installation is Complete
Installation is now complete. You now need to boot your new system. Please remove any media from your drives before continuing.
Ubuntu Login Screen
At this screen you must login with the account that you created in the previous steps. In the example below, you can see that I have logged in with the user "john". An overview of my current system is displayed.
Change to "root user"
To install additional components and make changes to the system you will need to switch to the "root" account or use the "sudo" option. For this exercise I have switched to the root account by issuing the command sudo su -
tasksel command - Installing and Removing components
A utility called "tasksel" is provided that allows you to install additional components/packages to your system. Below is a quick overview of the command along with an example of installing the "Samba File Server component"
tasksel install <task> tasksel remove <task> tasksel [options] -t, --test Test Mode, doesn't really do anything --new-install Automatically Install some tasks --list-tasks List tasks that would be displayed and exit --task-packages List available packages in task --task-desc Returns the description of a task
By issuing the "tasksel" command with no additional arguments, the following screen will be displayed:
Simply highlight the entry you wish to install and select by pressing the "Space"key. Your selected entry will be indicated by an "*" asterisk. Then select "Ok" to install. From the above screen shot we can see that we have so far only installed the "Basic Ubuntu Server" and the "openSSH Server" component.
The command "tasksel --list-tasks | less" can be issued also display what items are currently installed or not installed. Items that are installed are prefixed with an "i" in the first column. Items that have not been installed are prefixed with an "u" in the first column.
(See screen Shot below)
Example of Installing Samba File Server with the tasksel command
To install Samba to our server, we need to issue the command "tasksel"
Highlight the software you wish to install by using the arrow keys and pressing the "Space" key to select, then highlight the option "Ok" to install.
Confirming Software Installation
We can use the command: tasksel --list-task | grep -i samba to confirm that our software is now installed.
After installation. the software should start to run immediately. We can see this by issuing the "initctl status smbd" and relevant "ps"commands. (See below).
Although the software is installed and running, you will have to modify the smb.conf file to create any shares and define your security settings.